SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) – Gov. Jerry Brown, Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom and California’s other top elected officials acknowledge using personal email accounts to conduct government business.

Brown’s office says he occasionally uses private email to contact staffers, while Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson conducts most of his state business on a personal account.

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It is not clear if their private exchanges are retained as public records or are subject to disclosure.

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The Associated Press surveyed California’s eight top elected officers and four legislative leaders, finding a loose patchwork of practices. Secretary of State Alex Padilla was the only official who did not respond.

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The use of private email by public officials has come under intense scrutiny after former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton acknowledged deleting thousands of messages from her private account.